Emperor Franz Joseph I. 1867 – 1916, crowned King of Hungary on June 8, 1867
Emperor Charles I. 1916 – 1918, crowned King Charles IV of Hungary, on December 30, 1916
The Emperor of Austria was at the same time King of Hungary. This dual monarchy was esta-blished in his own right, and enabled the monarch to be King of Hungary as well.
The political and economic unit had common ministries (foreign and defence ministry and trea-sury) and was called Real Union. All the institutions concerning both parts of the kingdom, e.g. the army, were called k.u.k. (imperial and royal).
The government of Cisleithanien, however, was only given the name “k.-k” (imperial-royal). Royal referred in this case to the Bohemian Kingship, which the Austrian Emperor also held. Administration and institutions of the Hungarian part of the kingdom were described as “m.kir.” (“magyar kiralyi”) or “kgl. Ung.“ ("Royal-Hungarian“).